pengipe- -ansp. var.pengippe- -anv1this causative circumfix co-occurs with a verb that references a reason for a resulting event or action expressed in another clauseDingngel di David niyadda sindalu tu ey nambi-ki da hu balwasi dan pengipeang-angan dan lemyung da. (2 Samuel 1:11)David and his soldiers heard (what happened) and they tore their clothing to show their grief.Simnengipe- -anThe resulting event or action is encoded in a clause that generally precedes the clause with the causative marked verb.2this causative circumfix may also cross-reference a topicalized agentHi Mary hu pengipeal-an ku etan ni taddung mu.I have sent your hat through Mary.The agent doing the action rather than the causative agent is cross-referenced.